In fact, Z under addition is the only infinite cyclic group, in the sense that any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z. The first four properties listed above for multiplication say that Z under multiplication is a commutative monoid. However, not every integer has a multiplicative inverse; e.
Influence of Al content and precipitation state on the mechanical behavior of austenitic high-Mn low-density steels I. Raabe Scripta Materialia 68 Influence of Al content and precipitation state on the mechanical behavior of austenitic high-Mn low-density steels Scripta Materialia 68 —Al-[ We investigate the strain hardening of two austenitic high-Mn low density steels, namely, Fe— The precipitation of intergranular M3C-type carbides strongly influences the fracture mode.
In addition, the interfacial energies of three Fe—18Mn—0. The interfacial energy exhibits a strong dependence on the difference in Gibbs energy of the individual fcc and hcp phases. Accordingly, an empirical description of this parameter is proposed to improve the accuracy of thermodynamic SFE calculations.
The alloys are based on the Fe-Mn-Al-C system.
Here, two steel types are addressed. The second one is a class of kappa-carbide strengthened austenitic steels with even higher Al content. Three topics are addressed in more detail, namely, the combinatorial bulk high-throughput design of a wide range of corresponding alloy variants, the development of microstructure-property relations for such steels, and their susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement.
They are austenitic, i. High-Mn steels exhibit different hardening mechanisms which have been commonly interpreted in terms of the stacking fault energy. Some studies have recently addressed the influence of short range ordering SRO on strain hardening. These authors suggest a strain hardening parameter the so-called theoretical ordering index, TOI that is related to the SRO strengthening mechanism.
As twin interfaces act as strong obstacles to dislocation glide, microstructure refinement by deformation twinning increases the strain-hardening rate. The TWIP effect is therefore determined by the twinning kinetics, more specifically by the twinning rate and the average twin spacing.
Recently, a new hardening mechanism has been proposed in high-Mn steels, namely, microband-induced plasticity MBIP. These alloys exhibit an outstanding combination of strength ultimate tensile strength of MPa and ductility ca. Furthermore, the high aluminum content up to 10 wt.
MBIP has been ascribed to the formation of microbands and their role as an individual strain hardening mechanism. The microbands were described as in-grain narrow shear zones that are delimited by geometrically necessary boundaries.
However, upon deformation different types of dislocation substructures such as highly dense dislocation walls HDDWs and Taylor lattices have been observed as well.
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Up to now no detailed quantitative characterization of the underlying kinetics of the substructure evolution and their correspondence to the stress—strain and strain hardening evolution in the FeMnAlC system have been performed.
Specifically, the contributions of the different types of dislocation substructures, namely, HDDWs, Taylor lattices and microbands, to the excellent strain hardening capacity of FeMnAlC steels are still unclear.
Therefore, the present study has the following aims. First, we study in detail the contribution of the evolving dislocation substructure and its effect on strain hardening.Mimicking beautiful aged walls, this industrial style texture is complemented by on trend copper tones.
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