Green grow the rashes, O!
Summary[ edit ] Much scholarship suggests that the poem is told from the point of view of an old seafarer, who is reminiscing and evaluating his life as he has lived it. The seafarer describes the desolate hardships of life on the wintry sea.
The climate on land then begins to resemble that of the wintry sea, and the speaker shifts his tone from the dreariness of the winter voyage and begins to describe his yearning for the sea. The sea is no longer explicitly mentioned; instead the speaker preaches about steering a steadfast path to heaven.
Another understanding was offered in the Cambridge Old English Reader, namely that the poem is essentially concerned to state: Many of these studies initially debated the continuity and unity of the poem.
One early interpretation, also discussed by W. Lawrence was that the poem could be thought of as a conversation between an old seafarer, weary of the ocean, and a young seafarer, excited to travel the high seas. This interpretation arose because of the arguably alternating nature of the emotions in the text.
An Interpretation",was proposed by O. Anderson, who plainly stated: A careful study of the text has led me to the conclusion that the two different sections of The Seafarer must belong together, and that, as it stands, it must be regarded as in all essentials genuine and the work of one hand: The third part may give an impression of being more influenced by Christianity than the previous parts.
Arngart, he simply divided the poem into two sections. The first section represents the poet's life on earth, and the second tells us of his longing to voyage to a better world, to Heaven. In David Howlett published a textual analysis which suggested that both The Wanderer and The Seafarer are "coherent poems with structures unimpaired by interpolators"; and concluded that a variety of "indications of rational thematic development and balanced structure imply that The Wanderer and The Seafarer have been transmitted from the pens of literate poets without serious corruption.
By Frederick S. Holton had amplified this finding by pointing out that "it has long been recognized that The Seafarer is a unified whole and that it is possible to interpret the first sixty-three-and-a-half lines in a way that is consonant with, and leads up to, the moralizing conclusion".
In the arguments assuming the unity of The Seafarer, scholars have debated the interpretation and translations of words, the intent and effect of the poem, whether the poem is allegoricaland, if so, the meaning of the supposed allegory.
Wisdom[ edit ] Thomas D. Hill in argues that the content of the poem also links it with the sapiential booksor wisdom literaturea category particularly used in biblical studies that mainly consists of proverbs and maxims. Religion[ edit ] Scholars have often commented on religion in the structure of The Seafarer.
Critics who argue against structural unity specifically perceive newer religious interpolations to a secular poem. Much of it is quite untranslatable.
Disagreeing with Pope and Whitelock's view of the seafarer as a penitential exile, John F. This reading has received further support from Sebastian Sobecki, who argues that Whitelock's interpretation of religious pilgrimage does not conform to known pilgrimage patterns at the time.
Instead, he proposes the vantage point of a fisherman.
Douglas Williams suggested in Contrasted to the setting of the sea is the setting of the land, a state of mind that contains former joys.
Pope and Stanley Greenfield have specifically debated the meaning of the word sylf modern English: Smithers drew attention to the following points in connection with the word anfloga, which occurs in line 62b of the poem: The anfloga brings about the death of the person speaking.
It is characterized as eager and greedy. It moves through the air. As a result, Smithers concluded that it is therefore possible that the anfloga designates a valkyrie.
This may have some bearing on their interpretation. The "death-way" reading was adopted by C. Other translators have almost all favoured "whale road".The HyperTexts Robert Burns: Modern English Translations and Original Poems, Songs, Quotes, Epigrams and Bio Robert Burns is generally considered to be Scotland's .
Definition of Exeter Book From iridis-photo-restoration.com the largest extant collection of Old English poetry. Copied c. , the manuscript was given to Exeter Cathedral by Bishop Leofric (died ). In the poem "The Seafarer," the use of alliteration gives the piece a lyrical and musical sound when read aloud, as was the custom for songs, dramas and poems—before the concept of literature.
felahrór féran on fréan waére·: still in his full-strength, to fare in the protection of the Lord Frea; hí hyne þá ætbaéron tó brimes faroðe.
he they carried to the sea's surf. The Wanderer is an Old English poem preserved only in an anthology known as the Exeter Book, a manuscript dating from the late 10th iridis-photo-restoration.com counts lines of alliterative iridis-photo-restoration.com is often the case in Anglo-Saxon verse, the composer and compiler are anonymous, and within the manuscript the poem is untitled.
The Seafarer is an Old English poem giving a first-person account of a man alone on the sea. The poem consists of lines, followed by the single word "Amen" and is recorded only at folios 81 verso - 83 recto of the Exeter Book, one of the four surviving manuscripts of Old English iridis-photo-restoration.com has most often, though not always, been categorised as an elegy, a poetic genre commonly assigned to a.