Literature of the United Kingdom At its formation, the United Kingdom inherited the literary traditions of England, Scotland and Wales, including the earliest existing native literature written in the Celtic languagesOld English literature and more recent English literature including the works of Geoffrey ChaucerWilliam Shakespeare and John Milton.
The term "United Kingdom" normally is understood to include Northern Ireland; the term "Great Britain" refers to the island of Britain and its constituent nations of England, Wales, and Scotland but does not include Northern Ireland.
Any citizen of Great Britain may be referred to as a Briton. The land area of Great Britain is 89, square milessquare kilometerswith an additional 5, square miles 13, square kilometers in Northern Ireland, giving it one of the highest population densities in the Western world.
Although the country lies mostly at the latitude of Labrador in the western Atlantic, the climate is tempered by the Gulf Stream and does not have extremes of summer heat or winter cold.
Except for some areas of barren upland and bog, most of the land is suitable for agriculture and has been grazed or cultivated since the Bronze Age. The natural vegetation is mixed oak woodland, but most of the terrain has been cleared for agriculture or for shipbuilding and charcoal for smelting.
The earliest evidence of human settlement is at Boxgrove, Sussex, and the island may have been continuously occupied foryears. The population is approximately 55 million: The nation's cultural diversity has been increased by migration within the British Isles and by immigration from Europe and overseas.
UntilIreland was incorporated within the United Kingdom.
Movement across the Irish Sea had existed since the eighteenth century, even among Ireland's poorest people. In the nineteenth century, there was a regular pattern of seasonal migration of farm workers from Ireland to Britain. Irishmen volunteered for the Royal Navy and British Army regiments in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and saw service in all parts of the empire.
A wide variety of other Irish people spent periods in Britain, which had a more highly developed economy than Ireland.
From onward, the censuses of Scotland, England, and Wales have enumerated Irish-born people in every part of the country.
Similarly, Scottish and Welsh people have settled in England. Most British people have ancestries that are mixtures of the four nationalities of the British Isles. Before and after World War II, political and religious refugees and displaced persons from the Baltic countries, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary were offered shelter in Britain and remained, along with some prisoners of war.
After the late s, many of non-European overseas immigrants arrived, predominantly from the colonies, including people of Indian and African ancestry from the West Indies and Guyana; people from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh; and Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore.
The census, the first to include ethnic background, enumerated three million Britons of non-European birth or ancestry. Regional and cultural relationships are expressed in marked linguistic differences.
Although the language has been modified by a gradual convergence toward "estuary English" a United Kingdom less formal variety of southeastern speech, and educational and socioeconomic factors, it is possible to determine people's geographical origins by the way they speak.
In some areas, there are significant differences in speech patterns from one city or county to its neighbor. These differences are associated with loyalties to one's place of birth or residence and for many people are important aspects of self-identity; non-English native languages are little spoken but in recent years have gained significance as cultural and political symbols.
In Wales, 80 percent of the people speak English as their first or only language and those who speak Welsh as their first language are bilingual. In Scotland, Gaelic is not a national symbol because it was never spoken in some parts of that country. People in the Northern Isles are bilingual in English and an unwritten creolized form of Old Norse; in the Channel Islands, the Norman French patois is nearly extinct; and in Cornwall, there are no natural speakers of Cornish, although the language has been reconstructed.World Culture Encyclopedia: North America, Oceania, South Asia, Europe, East / Southeast Asia, Russia - Eurasia / China, South America, Middle America / Caribbean, and Africa / Middle East.
There are items of clothing that the British have developed and marketed around the world - these are items that relate to our terrible weather and the amount of rain we get.
Culture and Imperialism [Edward W.
Said] on iridis-photo-restoration.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A landmark work from the author of Orientalism that explores the long-overlooked connections between the Western imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Algeria's culture is strongly influenced by the country's recent history, as well as other aspects such as their literature, music, arts, crafts and religion.
Arabic is Algeria's primary language and is spoken by around 82% of the populace. The French colonialism experienced by the country in the past has resulted in French being the second language of many educated Algerians, and English is.
British Culture. Customs, Culture and Traditions. These sections are in advanced English and are only intended to be a guide, and should not be taken too seriously! They all have a dictionary look up - double click on any word to get an instant definition and often you can listen to the pronunciation too.
Grammar: In this section you may find exercises and activities of your interest. I have created them to teach my students. Some are based on authentic material: news, student writings, pages from .