Human papillomavirus research paper

CDC, The human papillomavirus is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse and this is why it is a major sexually transmitted infection.

Human papillomavirus research paper

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract Recent evidences identify Human Papillomavirus HPV sperm infection as a possible cause of male and couple infertility.

It acts through different mechanisms at various steps of human conception and early gestational development. We performed a systematic review to assess the role of HPV semen infection on male and couple infertility.

Analysis of available and eligible data does not permit us to fund clear evidences about clinical impact of HPV infection on fertility, although sperm parameters impairment is the most widely recognized effect. Regarding biomolecular implications, the available data are often conflicting.

Carcinogenesis

More studies are required to define the role of HPV sperm infection in clinical practice. The great majority of evidences are obtained by in vitro studies and this fact represents a limitation for the clinical management of HPVDNA sperm infection.

Understanding the biological significance of HPV-DNA semen infection could permit us to explain most of the idiopathic male and couple infertility, leading to a better management of infertile men and a better timing for sperm banking storage before ART cycles.

Introduction Human Papillomavirus HPV infection is one of the main sexually transmitted diseases worldwide [ 1 ].

Human papillomavirus research paper

The most important clinical consequence of HPV infection is cervical cancer which remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in young and older women [ 2 — 5 ]. HPV infection is also related to anogenital warts and different neoplasia, such as vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, oral cavity, head, and neck cancers [ 146 ].

Great progresses have been reached in understanding the pathologic mechanisms of HPV infection. Nevertheless few data are available on male infection [ 113 — 15 ]. Recent findings underlined the role of HPV semen infection in male and couple infertility, focusing mainly on its high prevalence among 18—40 years old men [ 1617 ].

The exact localization of HPV in the spermatozoa is not well defined, even if recent studies demonstrated that the virus binds two distinct sites along the equator of the spermatozoa's head [ 1819 ].

Many Authors hypothesized that HPV can modify spermatic parameters causing sperm motility reduction, seminal pH alterations, and spermatozoa DNA fragmentation [ 1820 — 22 ]. Although in vitro studies demonstrated that spermatozoa can carry HPV-DNA and transfer it to oocytes, it is still not clear if in vivo the HPV-infected sperm is able to fertilize oocyte and to transfer the viral genome [ 1723 — 25 ].

These uncertainties extend to the following steps of conception because it is not clear if the infected oocytes are able to generate normal embryo and if the infection itself could interfere with implantation and subsequent pregnancy development [ 17 ].

The aim of this review is to investigate the implications of HPV sperm infection on male and couple infertility, analyzing the clinical impact on early pregnancy development and pregnancy loss, the paradigmatic spermatic alterations, the sperm immunological modifications, and the spermatozoa HPV-related molecular changes.

Finally we analysed the effect of HPV-infected sperm on fertilized oocyte, blastocyst implantation, and pregnancy development.

Revised WHO position on human papillomavirus vaccines

We will also discuss the available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, in terms of feasibility and clinical efficacy trying to make some considerations on sperm banking before ART cycles.

Data Sources A Literature analysis was performed on the electronic databases Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane Library, considering papers published in the time interval from to We looked for randomized trials, observational and retrospective studies, original works, and review articles having topics as the relation between male HPV sperm infection, seminal modifications, effects on fertilized oocytes, association to apoptosis, early miscarriages, and implications on male and couple reproductive outcomes.

Methods We evaluated the clinical significance of genital HPV-DNA presence in male, female, and couple in relation to placental infection both at term and preterm and spontaneous miscarriage Table 1. Data about studies analyzing the clinical impact of HPV infection on fertility outcomes.Human Papillomavirus (HPV) position paper.

Position paper (May ) Original English and French versions [PDF MB] Grading of scientific evidence - Efficacy of HPV vaccination in young females pdf, kb; Grading of scientific evidence - Immunogenicity of 2 vs.

3 doses of HPV vaccination in immunocompetent girls pdf, kb.

HPV vaccine - Wikipedia

E4, E6, E7 human papillomavirus (HPV) genes associated with carcinogenesis that code for proteins produced early in infection with HPV ECDC European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EMEA European Medicines Agency EMRO World Health Organization Regional Office for.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus. Available vaccines protect against either two, four, or nine types of HPV.

All vaccines protect against at least HPV type 16 and 18 that cause the greatest risk of cervical cancer. It is estimated that they may prevent 70% of cervical cancer, 80% of anal cancer, 60% of vaginal.

Recent evidences identify Human Papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection as a possible cause of male and couple infertility.

It acts through different mechanisms at various steps of human conception and early gestational development. We performed a systematic review to assess the role of HPV semen infection on male and couple infertility.

Analysis of available and eligible data does not permit us. Introduction. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended to prevent HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases, including cancers.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection Research Paper

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection. A pap smear can help detect changes in the cervix caused by HPV.

Learn more.

Human Papillomavirus (hpv) - Research Paper