Rain is naturally acidic, but acid gasses make it even more acidic. Acid gasses are mainly caused by humans burning fossil fuels like coal and oil; but nature also creates these gasses with volcanoes. The opposites of acid are alkalis; for example, toothpaste and baking powder are both alkalis. Strong alkalis can also be dangerous, such as ammonia and bleach.
Comparison of air pollutant concentrations with air quality standards or guidelines, if they exist, indicates problem areas for which a causal analysis has to be performed in order to find out which sources are responsible for the non-compliance. Using appropriate meteorology parameters in a suitable dispersion model, annual averages and percentiles can be estimated and compared to air quality standards or guidelines, if they exist.
If the compound or compounds have been fixed in a causal analysis compound-causal analysisa second analysis has to be performed to find out the responsible sources source-causal analysis.
Control Measures; Cost of Control Measures Control measures for industrial facilities include adequate, well-designed, well-installed, efficiently operated and maintained air cleaning devices, also called separators or collectors.
Wet collectors scrubbers can be used to collect, at the same time, gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. Also, certain types of combustion devices can burn combustible gases and vapours as well as certain combustible aerosols. Depending on the type of effluent, one or a combination of more than one collector can be used.
The control of odours that are chemically identifiable relies on the control of the chemical agent s from which they emanate e.
However, when an odour is not defined chemically or the producing agent is found at extremely low levels, other techniques may be used, such as masking by a stronger, more agreeable and harmless agent or counteraction by an additive which counteracts or partially neutralizes the offensive odour.
It should be kept in mind that adequate operation and maintenance are indispensable to ensure the expected efficiency from a collector. This should be ensured at the planning stage, both from the know-how and financial points of view.
Energy requirements must not be overlooked. Whenever selecting an air cleaning device, not only the initial cost but also operational and maintenance costs should be considered.
Whenever dealing with high-toxicity pollutants, high efficiency should be ensured, as well as special procedures for maintenance and disposal of waste materials. The fundamental control measures in industrial facilities are the following: Modification or change of the industrial process or equipment.
For example, a different plant layout may facilitate the installation of a local exhaust system; the performance of a process at a lower rate may allow the use of a certain collector with volume limitations but otherwise adequate.
Process modifications that concentrate different effluent sources are closely related to the volume of effluent handled, and the efficiency of some air-cleaning equipment increases with the concentration of pollutants in the effluent. Adequate housekeeping and storage. Adequate disposal of wastes.
The latter practice not only causes water pollution but can also create a secondary source of air pollution, as in the case of liquid wastes from sulphite process pulp mills, which release offensive odorous gaseous pollutants.
By analogy with adequate practices at the workplace, good practices at the community level can contribute to air pollution control - for example, changes in the use of motor vehicles more collective transportation, small cars and so on and control of heating facilities better insulation of buildings in order to require less heating, better fuels and so on.
Motor vehicle emissions are controlled by controlling emissions per vehicle mile travelled VMT and by controlling VMT itself Walsh Emissions per VMT can be reduced by controlling vehicle performance - hardware, maintenance - for both new and in-use cars.
Fuel composition of leaded gasoline may be controlled by reducing lead or sulphur content, which also has a beneficial effect on decreasing HC emissions from vehicles.
Lowering the levels of sulphur in diesel fuel as a means to lower diesel particulate emission has the additional beneficial effect of increasing the potential for catalytic control of diesel particulate and organic HC emissions.Food & Health Food Preservation, Commercial & Home Food Safety, Food Science & Manufacturing, Nutrition and Health.
Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late.
Acid rain is precipitation of higher than normal acidity. Manmade increases in the acidity of precipitation are traced mainly to the burning of coal, oil, and gas by heavy industry and electrical utilities. Burning these fuels releases sulfur and nitrogen oxides (Sox and Nox) to the atmosphere.
IntroductionThroughout the ages, humans have relied on Nature for their basic needs for the production of food-stuffs, shelters, clothing, means of transportation, fertilizers, flavours and fragrances, and, not the least, medicines.
Acid Rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Every day this problem increases. Many believe that this issue is too small to deal with, but if the acid rain problem is not met with head on, the effects on people, plants, animals, and the economy will only worsen.
Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each daythis serious problem increases, many people believe that this issueis too small to deal with right now this issue should be met headon and solved before it is too late.