It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism.
Virtue ethics and care ethics Virtue ethics The virtue ethics approach in moral philosophy defends the view that when deciding how to live, we should consider not what would make the world a better place or what norms we should obey, but rather what kind of moral agents we want to be.
Virtue ethics focuses on moral character. It defends the notion that ethics is about the kind of person we are, more than about what we do. Rather, it simply tells us to develop a sound, moral character. According to virtue ethicists, when we have a virtuous character, we will act correctly.
Because of the way virtue ethics conceives of ethical thinking, it is difficult to see how one could defend a speciesist viewpoint in line with it.
Nevertheless, some may think that it would be possible to assume a virtue ethics approach that is in line with speciesism. In considering this, we must first note that in our relationship with nonhuman animals, we are already in an advantageous position. We have more power than they do.
This power relation may drive us to benefit from a situation in which animals are harmed, or to simply be indifferent to the harm they suffer, whether caused by ourselves, by others, or as a consequence of natural occurrences. However, such attitudes, which can be aptly described as abusive or insensitive, can hardly be considered features that would identify someone as having a virtuous character.
When discussing ethics, it may be argued that because most people accept speciesism, it is very hard to assume an antispeciesist viewpoint. However, those who defend a virtue ethics approach can reject this claim, as Daniel Dombrowski 1 and Nathan Nobis 2 have done, because acting virtuously is something we should do regardless of whether the context we are in is favorable or disfavorable towards virtuous action.
Some virtue ethicists have claimed that to be virtuous is to fulfill our potential to become full moral agents. But we can only fulfill such potential by letting others satisfy their own interests as well, as theorists such as Stephen Clark, 3 Bernard Rollin, 4 Rosalind Hursthouse, 5 and Martha Nussbaum 6 have claimed.
Since sentient beings are harmed when they cannot satisfy their own best interests, the virtue ethics approach would imply respecting the interests that others have.
Moreover, because insensitivity is not considered virtuous, we could also claim that the most virtuous action would not be just to do no harm, but actually to do good, and to try to help animals whenever possible. Care ethics Care ethicists claim that the basis for our ethical concerns should be our emotional responses to them.
In line with this, they defend that special relationships generate special moral duties, something that other theories basically, those that defend impartial concerns in ethics reject.
It may be thought that because of this, care ethics could provide a basis for an anthropocentric viewpoint that excluded nonhuman animals. The alleged reason for this would be that, because we usually have stronger relationships with humans, we should give priority to their interests and pay less attention to the interests of nonhuman animals.
Therefore, we should be concerned with the interests of all those who can feel suffering and wellbeing.
Accordingly, some care ethicists have actually addressed not only the duties we may have towards those nonhuman animals we are related to, but also towards others whom we are not related to, such as animals living in the wild.
We would not care for the overwhelming majority of humanity since we have no relationships with them. In fact, many people have a close relationship with some nonhuman animals.
If we were to make relationships the basis of caring, then we would have to accept the neglect of the majority of humanity as ethical, and that some nonhuman animals deserve more consideration than many humans. An alternative to this is, of course, to reject the relevance of relationships to the assignation of moral consideration, even though this means rejecting part of what care ethicists defend.
Feminist theoretical explorations, Durham: A feminist caring ethic for the treatment of animals, London: Personal, political, and global, Oxford: Nurses, women and ethics, Oxford: A virtue-oriented approach to environmental ethics, New York: A critical reader, Edinburgh: A pluralistic view, Oxford: Notes 1 Dombrowski, D.
The philosophy behind the ethical diet, London:Rosalind Hursthouse has published On Virtue Ethics. Health care and medical ethics. Thomas Alured Faunce has argued that whistleblowing in the healthcare setting would be more respected within clinical governance pathways if it had a firmer academic foundation in virtue ethics.
|Virtue Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)||Changing Modern Moral Philosophy a.|
|Care Ethics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged in Anglo-American philosophy in the late s. Neither of them, at that time, paid attention to a number of topics that had always figured in the virtue ethics tradition—virtues and vices, motives and moral character, moral education, moral wisdom or discernment, friendship and family relationships, a deep concept of happiness, the role of the emotions in our moral life and the fundamentally important questions of what sorts of persons we should be and how we should live.|
|Forms of Virtue Ethics||Changing Modern Moral Philosophy a. Anscombe In Elisabeth Anscombe published a paper titled "Modern Moral Philosophy" that changed the way we think about normative theories.|
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The most pre-dominant of these comparisons has been between care ethics and virtue ethics, to the extent that care ethics is sometimes categorized as a form of virtue ethics, with care being a central virtue.
Jan 30, · With our subject of Virtue ethics we have arrived at a fairly new station along the tracks of modern theories of ethics. It is exciting to discover that it plays an important role in the debates on ethics of today.
This means that in the research in preparation of my lecture I run into an abundance of new issues, names, publications related to Virtue Ethics. A dialogue between virtue and care ethics is formed as a step towards meeting Pellegrino's challenge to create a more comprehensive moral philosophy.
It is also a dialogue between nursing and. Virtue ethics and care ethics Virtue ethics. The virtue ethics approach in moral philosophy defends the view that when deciding how to live, we should consider not what would .
Care Ethics. The moral theory known as “ the ethics of care” implies that there is moral significance in the fundamental elements of relationships and dependencies in human life.
Normatively, care ethics seeks to maintain relationships by contextualizing and promoting the well-being of care-givers and care-receivers in a network of social relations.